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The Cuban Refugee Program was established by the U.S. government in 1961 in response to the growing number of Cubans fleeing Fidel Castro's regime and arriving in South Florida. The Program provided educational, medical, employment, and relocation services to Cuban refugees at the Cuban Refugee Center, also known as Freedom Tower and located in the building in downtown Miami that was the former headquarters of the newspaper The Miami News. The Cuban Refugee Program was phased out gradually by the terms of the Refugee Act of 1980 that merged it with other federal refugee initiatives. Over the course of 20 years, the Program assisted over half a million Cuban exiles.

The Cuban Refugee Center Records include correspondence, reports, publications, photographs, and clippings created and collected by Cuban Refugee Program staff and administrators. The records include information about efforts to relocate Cuban refugees to other parts of the United States and the work done by voluntary agencies such as Catholic Charities and the International Rescue Committee to carry out various aspects of the program. Digitized from this collection are selected photographs and samples of the newsletters published by the Cuban Refugee Program.